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Published:  2015-06-08 Views:  1594
Author:  Fanie
Published in:  Harties Heritage/Erfenis
Toppieshoek Argeologiese Terrein - Steentydperk

HOEV: OPNAME VAN BESIENSWAARDIGHEDE                  Nr 017

HEHA: SURVEY OF HERITAGE SITES                                     No 017

 

BROEDERSTROOM ARGEOLOGIESE TERREIN (TOPPIESHOEK)

DATUM 300-600 en 1400-1800

SAEA BESKERMING (60jr) ja

VERKLAAR ja. GELYS nVT

GPS data:X 27.52.33 Y –25.46.12

HARTBEESPOORT 482JQ. GEDEEELTE 4

PAD: pad na Oberon en Toppieshoek vanaf P31-1

EIENAAR / KONTAKPERSOON: Pretoria Tegnikon (012 2441425)

 

Steetydperkmense het sedert duisende jare gelede oor die hele suidelike Afrika, en dus ook in hierdie omgewing gewoon. Hulle het van jag en veldvrugte geleef, klipwerktuie gemaak en rotskuns beoefen (uitgekap op oop rotse of geskilder op beskermde rotswande) kyk 069. Hulle het nie huise of hutte gebou nie maar deur middel van takke en velle beskerming teen die elemente bewerk en hulle privaatruimtes afgebaken.

 

Rondom 300 n C het die Vroeë-Ystertyd mense hier vanaf Midde-Afrika aangekom. Hierdie mense het ook gejag en veldvrugte versamel maar ook bokke vir melk aangehou en op klein skaal gesaaides geplant. Hulle het in groter groepe saam gewoon in krale of dorpies bestaande uit ronde klei-en-latwerkhutte wat om ‘n sentrale ruimte gerangskik was waar die vee gehou is en waar die sosiale lewe afgespeel het. Die hutte was halwe sfere uit lat-en-kleikonstruksie soos byekorwe met lae ingange. Sommige hutte het kleivloere-en-misvloere gehad, sommige van die vloere was op ‘n houtkonstruksie effens van die grond gelig, vermoedelig om dit droog te hou vir die stoor van graan. Verder was hierdie mense bedrewe met die vervaardiging van kleipotte wat hulle om die rande versier het en wat tot ‘n pienk kleur gebrand was.

 

Die rede waarom hulle op hierdie spesifieke plek kom woon het was die beskikbaarheid van ystererts op die oppervlakte. Die erts is uitgegrawe en met houtskool in klei-oonde dmv blaasbalkvure tot yster gereduseer en verwerk.

 

Rondom 600 n C het daar weer ‘n droogteperiode aangebreek en hierdie Vroeë-Ystertydmense het weggetrek. Eers rondom 1100 n C moes die toestande weer verbeter het want die tweede groep, genoem die Middel- en Laat-Ystertydmense het weereens van die noorde tot hier getrek. Hierdie tweede groep het hulle op dieselfde terrein gevestig en hulle hutte deels bo-oor díe van die Vroeë Ystertydperk gebou. Hierdie mense het beeste gehad en hulle hutte het uit silindriese mure van latwerk-en-klei bestaan met koniese dakke van pale en gras daarop. Hulle dorpe se uitleg en sosiale struktuur was baie dieselfde as die van die Vroeë Ystertydperk.

 

 

Sketsvoorstelling van die rituële rondom die ertshope uit R J Mason: Guide to Archaeological Sites: Johannesburg. 1989

 

Sketch of the rituals around the ore mounds from R J Mason: Guide to Archaeological Sites: Johannesburg. 1989

 

Sketsvoorstelling van die lewenswyse van die Vroeë Ystertydperkmense by Toppieshoek tussen 300 nC en 600 nC uit R J Mason: Guide to Archaeological Sites: Johannesburg. 1989.

 

Sketches of the Early Iron Age settlers’ life between 300-600 A D from R J Mason: Guide to Archaeological Sites: Johannesburg. 1989

 

Die Middel- en Laat-Ystertydmense het die Steentydperk-jagters (in daardie stadium die Laat-Steentydperk of San /Boesmans ) as ‘n bedreiging vir hulle vee beskou en hulle verdryf.

 

Mettertyd het die Middel Ystertydperkmense groot dorpe en stede aangelê, meestal op randjies of heuwels en om en by 1650 hulle hutte en krale met klipmure versterk. R. Mason maak vanaf hierdie tyd ‘n  onderskeid en praat van die Laat Ystertydperk wat naatloos oorgaan in die Tswanakultuur (kyk 001, 008, 038, 074, 076, 087).

 

Op Broederstroom het die Universiteit van die Witwatersrand opgrawings gedoen en reste van hutte, graanstore, ertsmynplekke, potskerwe, grafte met gebeendere en persoonlike besittings, ysteroonde met blaasbalkpype en ertshope asook klipstapels van simboliese of rituele betekenis van die Vroeë- sowel as die Middel- Laat-Ystertyd ontdek. Hierdie opgrawings is gedokumenteer en die meeste artefakte is in Wits se museum/argief bewaar. Op die terrein is die fondamente van die geboue nog sigbaar en daar het ook nog etlike artefakte of dele agtergebly wat vandag daar besigtig kan word. Die ertsmynplek en opgaarplek van erts asook rituele kliphope is ook nog sigbaar.

 

Die terrein is ‘n Nasionale Gedenkwaardigheid. Ten noorde van bogemelde uitgrawings is die reste van die fondamente van ‘n blanke pionier, Kok, wat ‘n bywoner van Andries Pretorius was, opgegrawe. Datum om en by 1850-1890. Suid van die argeologiese terrein is die Leidense sterrewag (018).

 

 

BROEDERSTROOM ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE (TOPPIESHOEK)

DATE 300-600 and 1400-

SAHRA PROTECTION (60YR) yes

DECLARED MONUMENT: yes. LISTED: n.a.

GPS data: X 27.52.33 Y –25.46.12

HARTBEESPOORT 482JQ.PORTION 4

ROAD: road to Oberon and Toppieshoek from P31-1

OWNER / CONTACT PERSON: Pretoria Tegnikon (012 2441425)

 

Stone Age people inhabited the southern parts of Africa for thousands of years, thus also the Magaliesberg region. They hunted and gathered fruits and nuts, made stone tools and practiced rock art (engraved on open rocks or painted on protected rock faces) see 069. They did not build houses or huts, but made makeshift branch and skin shelters for protection against the elements and/or to demarcate their domains.

 

Around 300 A D the first Early Iron Age people arrived in this region from Central Africa. These people were hunter-gatherers as well, but they also kept goats for milk and they planted crops on a small scale. They lived together in bigger groups. These villages containing round clay and lath-work huts were arranged around a central space, where the livestock was kept and the social life took place. The huts were of a hemisphere shape made out of clay and lath-work almost like a beehive with a low entrance.  Some of the huts had clay or dung smeared floors, some floors were built on wooden constructions raised off the ground, possibly to keep the grain dry which was stored there. The Early Iron Age people also manufactured clay pots, which had a pink colour after it had been fired. The pots were decorated around the brims.

 

The reason why these people chose the particular spot was because iron ore was found on the surface.  The ore was dug out and was reduced to iron with charcoal in clay ovens with bellow blown fires.

 

Around 600 A D another dry period started and the Early Iron Age people moved away.  Around 1100 A D the environmental conditions improved again making living conditions favourable for the second group of people known as the Middle and Late Iron Age people from the north.  This second group settled on the same site and they built their huts partially over those of the Early Iron Age people.  These people had cattle and their huts consisted out of cylindrical walls of lath-work and clay with conical roofs of poles and grass.  Their town layout and social structure was more or less the same than that of the Early Iron Age people.

 

The Middle and Late Iron Age people regarded the Stone Age hunters (Late Stone Age people or San/Bushmen) as a threat to their livestock and drove them away.

 

With time these people started building big towns and cities, usually on hills and around 1650 they started fortifying their huts and cattle pens with stonewalls.  From this time onwards R. Manson refers to the Late Iron Age, which goes over into the Tswana culture (see 001, 008, 038, 074, 076, 087).

 

The University of the Witwatersrand did excavations on Broederstroom and discovered hut remains, grain stores, ore mining sites, potshards, graves with bones and personal belongings, iron kilns with blow pipes and ore heaps as well as stone heaps with symbolic and ritual meaning of the Early as well as the Middle and Late Iron Age. These excavations are documented and most of the artefacts are kept in the Wits University museum/archive.  On the site the foundations of the buildings are still visible and there are a lot of artefacts or parts of, which stayed behind and can still be seen today. The ore mine and storage sites, as well as ritual stone heaps can also be seen. The site is a National Monument.

 

To the north of the above-mentioned excavations the remains of a foundation of a white pioneer, Kok, who was a sub-farmer of Andries Pretorius, was discovered.  The date is more or less 1850-1890.

 

South of the archaeological site is the Leiden observatory (018).

 


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