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Published:  2015-11-01 Views:  1491
Author:  Fanie
Published in:  Harties Heritage/Erfenis
1847 Huis Van Bart Pretorius (Andries Pretorius Se Broer)

HOEV: OPNAME VAN BESIENSWAARDIGHEDE                  Nr 023

HEHA: SURVEY OF HERITAGE SITES                                     No 023

 

BART PRETORIUS SE HUIS MET GOUDMYN, EN DIE “PO-LAND”-NEDERSETTING

DATUM 1848 / 1870 / 2001

SAEA-BESKERMING (60jr): ja

VERKLAAR: nee. GELYS: nee

GPS data:X 27.52.08 Y –25.48.09

BROEDERSTROOM 481JQ, GEDEELTE 226

PAD K 26 h/v oupad tussen Kalkheuwel en Hartbeespoort/ De Rust.

EIENAAR / KONTAKPERSOON: Allen Liebenberg: 012 205 1597

Broedersroom Veearts

 

Hercules Albertus (Bart) Pretorius is op 22 08 1803 op Graaff-Reinet gebore en het met sy twee ouer broers, Andries (die beroemde Voortrekkerleier) en Piet, in 1838 aan die Groot Trek deelgeneem. Hy was ‘n lid van die Wenkommando van Bloedrivier en een van die vyf wat uit die laer uitgery het om die Zoeloes uit te lok om weer te storm.

 

Bart Pretorius se huis in 2003 vanaf suid gesien. Die oorspronklike huis was baie kleiner en het net vanaf die skoorsteen op die nok tot nie eens die gewel links gestrek. Die groot Witstinkhoutboom links agter moet etlike honderd jaar oud wees.

Bart Pretorius’ house in 2003 seen from the south. The old house was much smaller. As can be estimated from the thick original walls inside, it stretched from the chimney on the ridge to nearly the left hand gable. The enormous White Stinkwood tree to the left must be several hundred years old.

 

Daarna het hy hom in Natal gevestig en in 1847 na die Britse besetting en hulle instelling van ondraaglike wette, saam met sy twee broers na die ZAR getrek waar hy en Piet hulle op Broederstroom gevestig het. Die plaas is na die twee Pretoriusbroers vernoem.

Hier het hy vanaf 1852 tot 1860 in die Volksraad gedien en was in 1855 voorsitter van die Raad. Sy huis op Broederstroom bestaan nog in ‘n heelwat veranderde voorkoms nadat dit in 1900 deur die Britte afgebrand is. Dit is in hierdie huis se solder wat hy in 1881 ‘n skool laat ontstaan het. (Kyk 022). Hy is op 25 September 1889 oorlede en op Broederstroom begrawe (024).

Langs die huis vloei vandag nog die waterstroom verby wat uit die standhoudende fontein in die dolomietgebied van Kalkheuwel ontstaan. Die dolomiet bevat ook verskeie minerale en reeds vroeg is hier goud en silwer ontgin. Op Bart Pretorius se plaas was daar ‘n aansienlike goudmyn vanaf 1870 bedrywig. Die skagte en fondamente van die stampers asook reste van die meule en slykdamme bestaan nog. Dit is merkwaardig hoe naby aan die huis dit geleë was, moontlik vir goeie toesig? Die geraas en stof moes egter ondraaglik gewees het.

 

Volgens kenners het die goudmyn op die Amerikaanse metode van goudontginning gewerk wat die vermoede laat ontstaan dat dit deur ‘n Amerikaanse maatsappy op konsessie van Bart Pretorius opereer het.

 

Bart Pretorius het die plaas aan sy kinders bemaak. Sy seun, Willem Pretorius, het die deel met die huis geërf. Hy het as gevolg van ‘n liefdesteleurstelling die spoor byster geraak en begin drink. Dit het toe gebeur dat hy die huis per ongeluk aan die brand steek en in die poging om dit te blus het hy blind geword. Hy het nooit getrou en na sy dood is die huis aan sy suster Nellie nagelaat. Sy is met ene Truter getroud. Hulle dogter, Cecilia (genoem Kissietjie), wat met Gert Els getroud was het weer van haar geërf. Haar dogter, Cecilia Geringer, was die laaste Pretoriusafstammeling wat die oorspronklike opstal besit het. Die Geringers het dit egter weens twee verlore hofsake (teen Jalalpor -kyk 021- en teen ‘n ander buurman weens ‘n watersaak) moes prysgee.

 

Roger Roman is die huidige eienaar. Hy het die opstal gekoop met ‘n “oorerfde nadeel” naamlik ‘n groterige nedersetting van min of meer werklose swartmense wat teenoor hom die bewering gemaak het dat hulle lank reeds daar woon, sommiges daar gebore is, geen ander heenkome het en ‘n aanspraak op die grond het soos wat dit glo deur van die vorige Pretoriusnakomelinge aan hulle belowe was en soos wat Jalalpor ook nou besit van die winkel gekry het.

 

Roman het hiedie probleem in ‘n geleentheid omskep en die 5 ha waarop die nedersetting - wat in daardie stadium baie vervalle en deur misdaad geteister was - gesetel was in ‘n Gemeenskaplike Eienaarsvereniging oorgedra. Die bewoners het nou elk besitreg op sy huis en aanvaar verantwoordelikheid daarvoor. Die eienaarsvereniging het ‘n waaksaamheidskomitee in die lewe geroep wat reëls en regulasies opgestel het waarmee hulle die goeie gedrag van die gemeenskap reguleer en ongewensde indringers afweer.

 

Die plek se naam is Po-land wat volgens Roman moontlik verband kan hou met die baPo, ‘n nGuni-stam wat in die jare voor die Matabeli-inval reeds naby Wolhuterskop gevestig was en vrede met die Tswanastamme gehandhaaf het. Die ander verklaring is dat dit van ‘n Griekwa- woord, “bo la”, afgelei is wat beteken “ons bly hier”. Dit is bekend dat die Griekwa voor die Matabele-besetting met die Tswana handel gedryf het en tot oor die Magaliesberge gekom het.

 

Dit is opmerklik dat sedert die instelling van die Gemeenskaplike Eienaarsvereniging die geboue opgeknap word en misdaad afgeweer word. Roman is tans ook besig met verskeie werkverskaffingskemas vir die lede van die Po-land-gemeenskap. Die nedersetting met sy huidige selfregulerende bestuur is ‘n goeie voorbeeld van vreedsame en volhoubare naasbestaan wat baseer op historiese gegewens en ou tradisies.

 

 

 

Hierdie steen lê vandag op die stoep van die huis. Op die bokant is die groewe (bieke) van ‘n meulsteen sigbaar maar aan die onderkant is hierdie steen later grof afgerond en daar is twee gate van bo af deur die steen geboor om dit aan ‘n steel vas te maak. Dit was in hierdie vorm waarskynlik gebruik om die gouderts fyn te maal terwyl dit deur donkies in die rondte getrek is soos op die skets hieronder.

 

This old mill stone shows the original grooves on the top but it was roughly rounded at the bottom in later years and used to grind the gold ore, drawn by donkeys as shown on the sketch below.

 

Skets van ‘n ertsmeule volgens die Amerikaanse metode.

Sketch of a donkey or horse drawn “Arrastra” or mill to grind the gold ore.

 

Sulke stampmeulens is waarskynlik ook op Bart Pretorius se goudmyn gebruik. Die fondamente met die boute om die masjiene vas te hou bestaan nog.

 

Similar stamps were probably also used on Bart’s gold mine. The foundations with heavy bolts are still to be seen.

‘n Tipiese huis op Po-land. Die tradisionele lapa as sentrale leefruimte tussen die geboue word steeds gebruik.

A typical example of a house at Po-land. The traditional lapa as external living area is retained in these layouts.

Obed Moja op sy 102de verjaardag 01 02 2003 voor die huisie wat hy self gebou het.

Obed Moja born 01 02 1901, at his 102nd birthday in front of the house he built himself.

 

 

 

BART PRETORIUS’ HOUSE WITH GOLD MINE, AND THE “PO-LAND” SETTLEMENT

DATE 1848 / 1870 / 2001

SAHRA PROTECTION (60yr):yes

DECLARED MONUMENT: no. LISTED: no

GPS data: X 27.52.08 Y –25.48.09

BROEDERSTROOM 481JQ, PORTION 226

ROAD K 26 c/o old road between  Kalkheuwel and Hartbeespoort/ De Rust.

OWNWR / CONTACT PERSON: Allen Liebenberg: 012 205 1597 

Broedersroom Veterinary Clinic

 

Hercules Albertus (Bart) Pretorius was born on 22 08 1803 at Graaff-Reinet, and with his two elder brothers, Andries (the famous Voortrekker leader) and Piet, took part in the Great Trek of 1838. He was a member of the “ Winning Commando” at Bloedrivier and one of the five who rode out of the laager to lure the Zulus to charge again.

 

After the battle of Blood River he settled in Natal, but in 1847 after British annexation and the implementation of unbearable laws, he moved with two of his brothers to the ZAR where he and Piet settled at Broederstroom.  The farm is named after the two Pretorius brothers: Broederstroom is “Brothers’ Stream”.

 

Here he served in the “Volksraad” from 1852 to 1860, and in 1855 he was the chairman of that body.  His house at Broederstroom still exists today but it looks quite different being rebuilt after it was burnt down in 1900 by the British. It is in the attic of this house that he established a school in 1881. (See 022). He died on 25 September 1889 and was buried in Broederstroom (024).

 

Next to the house flows a stream, which comes from a perennial fountain in the dolomite region of Kalkheuwel. The dolomite contains various minerals, including gold and silver, which have been mined from the earliest of times.  On Bart Pretorius’s farm a significant gold mine operated from 1870.  The shafts and foundations of the crusher as well as the remains of the grinder and slime dam still exist today. The house was situated in close proximity to the mine, possibly for supervision.  The noise and dust of the mining activates however must have been unbearable.

 

The American method of gold mining was used at this mine.  It is possible that this mine was a concession of Bart Pretorius, which was operated by an American company.

 

Bart Pretorius bequeathed the farm to his children. His son, Willem, inhereted the portion of the farm where the house was built.  He had no children so his neice inhereted from him. She was married to Truter.  Her daugther, Cecillia who was married to Els, inhereted from her. Her daughter, Cecillia Geringer was the last Pretorius descendant who owned the original farm.  The Geringers had to give up the farm because of two law suites (against Jalapor, see 021 and against another neighbour because of a water dispute). They lost both cases.

 

Roger Roman is the current owner. He bought the farm with an “inherited disadvantage” namely a large settlement of unemployed black people who believe that because they have been staying there for quite a long time, some of them even being born there, have no other home and have a claim to the land because that was what the previous Pretorius descendants had promised their ancestors. Because of a similar promise Jalapor got ownership of his shop.

 

Roman changed this problem into an opportunity.  He transferred the 5 ha on which the black settlement – in decline and afflicted by crime – was, into a Community Ownership Committee. The inhabitants each now have ownership of a house and have accepted the responsibilities thereof.  The Ownership Committee have called a vigilance committee to life.  This committee has drawn up rules and regulations with which the good behaviour of the community is regulated and unwanted intruders are kept out.

 

Today this settlement is known as Po Land.  According to Roman there may be a connection between these settlers and the baPo, a nGuni tribe who settled close to Wolhuterskop in the years before the Matabele invasion. The baPo lived in peace with the Tswana tribes of the area. Another explanation might be that it has been derived from a Griqua word “bo la” which means, “we stay here”. It is well known that the Griqua traded with the Tswana well before the Matabele occupied the Magaliesberg.

 

It is remarkable to see how buildings have been renovated and how crime has been eradicated since the establishment of the Community Ownership Committee. Roman is currently busy with various employment schemes for the members of the Po Land community.  The settlement with its present self regulated management is a good example of peaceful and sustainable coexistence based on historical information and old traditions.

 

 Bart Pretorius

 

Christina Glas, jongste dogter van Bart Pretorius.

Christina Glas, youngest daughter of Bart Pretorius.

 

 

Jan Glas en Meno Glas, kleinseuns van Bart

 Murasies van goudertsverwerkingsaanleg.   

Ruins of gold ore processing plant.