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Published:  2014-12-31 Views:  2269
Author:  Fanie
Published in:  Harties Heritage/Erfenis
HOEV / HEHA Artikel 003 - Watermeule In Scheerpoort Rivier

HOEV: OPNAME VAN BESIENSWAARDIGHEDE                     Nr 003

HEHA: SURVEY OF HERITAGE SITES                                     No 003

 

WATERMEULE IN SKEERPOORTRIVIER:

DATUM: 1886/1899/

SAEA BESKERMING (60jr) ja

VERKLAAR nee. GELYS nee

GPS data:X 27.46.59 Y –25.49.50

HARTBEESHOEK 489JQ

PAD P 123-1

EIENAAR / KONTAKPERSOON: Patrick Hay (012-2071282)

 

Hierdie historiese meule is die enigste wat nog in die omgewing oorgebly het. Die plaas was oorspronklik deel van Kmdt-Gnl Andries Pretorius se “Grootplaas” (kyk 001 en 014).  In Notariële Akte nr 11 van 1899 is waterregte aan Nicolaas Jacobus Pretorius (kyk 002) in die Skeerpoortrivier toegestaan en het hy toestemming gekry om ‘n meule op te rig. Hierdie Akte het waarskynlik net die wetlikheid van die meule bevestig aangesien ‘n datumstempel van 1886 op ‘n balk van een van die ou meulstene te sien is.

 

Die murasie van die ou meulhuis wat met klip en klei gebou was, is nog te sien net suid van die latere meule wat van sinkplaat gebou is.

 

Die murasie van die ou meule.                                                        The ruins of the old mill.

 

Die ou meule van 1886 sou waarskynlik ‘n horisontale as van hout gehad het en ‘n oorvloei-waterwiel, ook van hout. Stene uit sandsteen, met ‘n kaphamertjie van groewe voorsien (“gebiek”) sowel as alle ratte, stellasie, meel- en koring- of mieliebakke is in daardie jare alles met die hand gemaak. In Suid-Afrika was daar vroeër op elke groot plaas ‘n meule. In droë streke is perde-, donkie- of windaangedrewe meulens gebruik maar waar daar lopende water was, is watermeulens verkies. In kleiner stroompies is sogenaamde “Noormansmeulens” met ‘n vertikale as gebruik. Dit was maklik om self te bou maar het stadig gemaal, so min as ‘n sak op ‘n dag. In sterker strome soos die Skeerpoortrivier is groot meulens met horisontale asse gebruik.

 

Die ou meule is reeds voor 1935 deur die nuwer tegnologie van ysterrollers, aangedryf deur ‘n Kaplanturbine vervang. Hierdie meule is in ‘n sinkgebou gehuisves wat vandag nog bestaan. Hierdie tweede meule het daarna nog konstant gewerk – soms tot laat in die nagte by lig van motorbatterye. Veranderde wetgewing het later veroorsaak dat groot korporatiewe meulens bevoordeel is. Daardeur het die meule in Brits gegroei, groot graansilos opgerig en die kleiner meulens in die distrik moes een na die ander sluit. In die Skeerpoortomgewing het die plaaslike Swart boere egter nog vir ‘n geruime tyd van die meule gebruik gemaak om hulle mielies te laat maal maar die aanplant van mielies het mettertyd afgeneem. In 1977 het die “Transvaalse Raad vir die Ontwikkeling van Buitestedelike Bebiede” verklaar dat die ou meule die waarde van die plaas verhoog sodat belasting daarop gehef kon word. In die lig hiervan het die eienaar besluit om die meule te sluit en die meulenaarslisensie aan die Mielieraad in September 1978 terug te gee. Sedertdien het die meule verwaarloos.

 

Mnr Patrick Hay, die huidige eienaar van die meule, die ou huis en die ou tabakdroogoond, bewaar dit as besienswaardighede. Daar is ook ‘n ou rampomp net suid van die plek waar die ou meule gestaan het. Die meule en rampomp kan op afspraak besigtig word.

Die tweede meule vanaf noord gesien. Dit is die kant vanwaar boere hulle graan gebring het en waar hulle die meel ontvang het. Regs agter is die watergeut te sien.

The second millhouse seen from north, the side from which farmers would have approached to deliver grain and collect meal.

Die suidekant van die tweede meule wys duidelik die merke wat die spatwater vanaf die groot waterwiel teen die mure gelaat het. Die waterwiel is later deur ‘n turbine vervang wat onder in die grag is.

The southern side of the second millhouse, showing the watermarks of the big water wheel which was later replaced by the turbine.

 

Die binnekant van die latere meule. Die masjien in die voorgrond is die meelsif.

 

The interior of the later mill. The machine in the foreground is the mealsifter.

 

 

Nog ‘n aansig van die meelsif met houtskagte waarin die meel na die sif vervoer is.

 

Another view of the mealsifter shows the wooden ducts wherein the meal was transported from the grinding machine to the sifter.

 

 

 

WATER MILL IN SKEERPOORT RIVER:

DATE: 1886/1899

SAHRA PROTECTION (60yr) yes

DECLARED MONUMENT: no. LISTED: no

GPS data: X 27.46.59 Y –25.49.50

HARTBEESHOEK 489JQ:

ROAD P123-1:

OWNER / CONTACT PERSON: Patrick Hay(012-2071282)

 

The historical gristing mill (also known as “Dodona Mill”) is situated on the Skeerpoort River on a portion of the farm Hartbeeshoek 498JQ in the Brits district. Originally this was part of Commandant-General Andries Pretorius’ farm “Grootplaas” which was 300 square miles in extent (see 014). In Notarial Deed No 11/1899 (in Dutch) water rights were ceded to Nicolaas Jacobus Pretorius (see 002) on the Skeerpoort River with permission to erect a mill. He married the granddaughter of the General and was the grandfather of the present owner of the farm and previously of the mill. Above mentioned Deed may have been to establish the legality of the water rights and mill, as there is a date stamp of 1886 on a shaft of one of the old millstones proving that the mill existed before the Deed.The 1886 mill probably had a horizontal wooden shaft and an overshot waterwheel, also made out of wood. Sandstone millstones, dressed with grooves chipped in with a little sharp hammer, gears, shafts, grain and flour containers were all “home-made”. The ruins of the stone and clay walls of the old millhouse are still to be seen south of the later millhouse that was built with corrugated iron.

 

In South Africa every larger farm had its mill. In drier areas these were wind or animal driven but where water streams were available they were harnessed to drive the mills. Smaller streams were utilized to operate the vertical wheel “Noormans” mills that were easy to make but very slow, often grinding less than one bag per day. In bigger streams like the Skeerpoort River a horizontal wheel mill was used.

 

The original mill was replaced before 1935 with a new mill in a corrugated iron millhouse. This mill had a Kaplan-turbine driving a battery of steel roller mills. The mill worked continuously for years, sometimes at night by lights from car batteries. However with the establishment of silos and a corporative mill in Brits demand fell off. Local Black mealie farmers still supported the mill for some time but when this also declined the mill was no more in demand. In 1977 the Transvaal Board for the Development of Peri-Urban Areas stated that this old mill was an “improvement” to be taxed. In view of this a decision was taken to close the mill and return the Gristing License to the Mealie Board in September 1978. The mill has deteriorated since. Mr. Patrick Hay, the present owner of the mill, old cottage and tobacco kiln tries to preserve these as historic relics. Further more there is an old “ram” pump south of the old millhouse. The mill and ram pump can be visited on appointment.

In die middel is die battery van drie rollermeulens. Regs is die meelsif.

 

In the middle is the battery of three roller mills in their cast iron cases. To the right is the mealsifter.

 

 

Die dik ysterpyp voer die water af na die turbine onder in die grag. Links daarvan is die as wat vanaf die turbine opkom en bo die masjiene aandryf.

 

The big iron pipe leads the water down to the turbine. The shaft to the left of the pipe is driven by the turbine and turns the machines in the millhouse.

 

Die rampomp.                                                                                               The ram pump.


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